From Compliance to Learning: A System for Harnessing the Power of Data in the State of Maryland builds on a 2015 World Bank report that assessed Education Management Information Systems (EMISs) in the state of Maryland. That report uncovered a successful system, and this one expands on lessons learned and ways to apply them in practice. The goal of this study is to distill Maryland’s good practices in education data systems and share them in a way that is useful to education stakeholders interested in harnessing the power of data to strengthen learning outcomes. This study also examines the history of education data collection and use in the United States with a focus on Maryland, including a review of federal and state legislation that has helped to shape Maryland’s education data policies and systems. In the digital age, information is power. When information is effectively harnessed and aligned with student learning, it carries the potential to radically transform the delivery of education, as well as the sector as a whole. Increasingly, education systems are moving away from using education data narrowly for compliance purposes; instead, they are embracing data as a tool to drive systemwide innovation, professionalization, and, most importantly, learning. Whether to prioritize and optimize data and information systems around student learning is no longer an option; it is imperative for education systems that aim to excel and achieve strong learning outcomes. Over the past several decades, fundamental shifts have occurred in the way that education data are collected, managed, and used. Today real-time learning data inform classroom instruction; predictive analytics identify at-risk youth before they drop out of school; and data from preschool to workforce are linked to help guide education reforms. These represent just a few of the innovative ways that schools and other stakeholders across the United States are harnessing data to improve education. The state’s success in establishing an enabling environment for education data systems and data utilization has built a strong foundation. Maryland effectively aligned a complex, statewide data system to deliver value. Prioritization of integration and alignment was key. The state then launched a longitudinal data system center that would drive an adaptive education system with insights that track students from pre-kindergarten to entry in the workforce. Data across the state are high quality and follow strict rules to preserve privacy and enhance security. Maryland’s utilization of data also offers valuable lessons. The statewide data system supports policy makers and decision makers in planning and management, as well as teachers, students, and families in instruction and learning. Consistent across Maryland’s structuring and use of data systems were a strong vision and a road map to execute that vision. Maryland’s journey offers many lessons, not only for countries with advanced data systems but also for those in less developed stages. While the technology and information exist to achieve data for learning, harnessing data within the right information system and ensuring utilization are challenging endeavors. An array of factors must align—leadership, policies, processes, and resources, to name a few—to effectively harness data to support and drive strong learning outcomes.